Hoima District is naturally well – endowed with biodiversity, in terms of species richness and abundance; species of high conservation value and a rich varied landscape with many ecosystems. The main vegetation ecosystems include tropical high forests (including riverine and swamp forests), savannah woodlands and grasslands, papyrus and grassland swamps which will necessarily support a wide range of flora and fauna. In addition, many areas in the district are of great scenic beauty, interspersed by an extensive system of Lake Albert and rivers. The district also has magnificent features along western rift valley in the Albertine rift like salt pan/ gardens, hot springs in Kigorobya, wild life reserves in Kaiso – Tonya, and oil and gas reserves in various parts along lake Albert like Toonya, Kibiro, and Kapaapi Parishes.
The key fauna and flora biodiversity resources in Hoima are presented under the following categories: mammals, birds, fishes, reptiles, amphibians, plants and insects. Most frequent woody species include acacia hocki, Bridelia, Rhus nantalensis, Hoslundia opposita, Flueggaea virosa. Most frequent herbaceous species include: Triumfetta annua, Sporobolus pyramidalis, Loudetia arundinacea, Hyparrhenia filipendula, indigofera spicata, Conyza floribunda. Invasive species include: Senna, Spectabilis, Acacia hocki.
Hoima District has a total area of gazetted forests equal to 359.9 sq. km and 25 sq.km of man-made forest cover. The total area for tree nurseries is 32 sq. km of which 1 sq. km is for government tree nurseries, 30 sq. km in respect to private tree nurseries and 1 sq. km for NGO/ CBO nurseries. Agro forestry sites are equivalent to 137 sq. km.
The water resources in Hoima consist of open water bodies (surface sources), ground water (sub – surface) and rain – harvest. Hoima District has an area of 2,166.7 sq. km covered by water. The District has one Lake Albert in its border with the Democratic Republic of Congo and a number of rivers Kafu, Waaki, Wambabya, Hoimo and Rutoha. It also has large swamp areas. Water from these various sources is put to multiple uses including human, livestock and wild life consumption. In addition, the open water sources being rich in biodiversity are a source of fisheries resource. Increasing population has forced the communities to resort to reclaiming wetlands for agricultural activities to meet their household food requirement and incomes. Wetlands cover about 183 km2 of the district, 33% are permanent wetlands and 67% are seasonal example permanent wetlands included: Wambabya, Waaki, Kiribanywa etc. The wetlands around rivers Waaki, Wambabya, Hoimo, and Rwamutonga are heavily degraded for especially growing tobacco and rice.